The Allure of Geopolitics and Quest of a Pivot State

Kemal Akyel


The states, owning key resources that receive the attention of great powers are named as the pivot state which stems from the study of Mackinder Heartland (pivot) theory in his article Geographical Pivot of History in the early twentieth century which is also known as the tradition of classical geopolitics. After the demise of Russia and the unification of Germany, it is concluded that civilization came to an end in "end of history" equivalence which was an announcement of the victory of liberal ideology against closed societies and communism. The forms of power based on which states are positioned has changed to cultural, shared values and institutions of liberal order such as democracy, human rights, which were seen as identical importance as military or economic sources. Consequently, the classical geopolitics weighting spatial context of geopolitics was considered as idle. However, Russia aggression in Ukraine, China South, and East China see activities Iran proxy wars in the Middle East brought on the idea that the geopolitics has survived. In this complex and uncertain security environment, as a NATO member pivot state Turkey, having a significant geographic location, credible military size and economic power has gained importance, whereas its recent behaviors such as buying S-400 air missiles from Russia and Syria Operation confused the scholars regarding where it pivots to. In this sense, this paper addresses where Turkey is pivoting to and whether these movements entail security concerns regionally and globally.

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